In the line that New Delhi proposes to pursue, diplomacy is peripheral to coercion. Implicit in this is a false depiction of the Nehru era as one of idealism and romanticism. Never mind that in September 1947 he was about to launch a war against Pakistan over Junagadh and in December 1947 over Kashmir; that he twice massed troops on the border with Pakistan, in 1950 and 1951; used force in his Forward Policy in Ladakh to regain “lost territory”. Months before Independence, he wrote a long memorandum on the role of each of the three wings of the armed forces. It was left to an ambitious and scheming Foreign Secretary, . Dixit, to don the garb of a “realist” to provide a contrast to the earlier period. He stooped so low as to traduce some of our finest envoys, vastly superior to himself, as not being patriotic enough. An obedient journalist took up the refrain and wrote glibly of “a Second Republic”. Curzon acquired a vogue. To Dixit, he was an Indian nationalist.
Kashmir did not witness direct Mughal rule till the reign of Mughal padshah (emperor) Akbar the Great , who visited the valley himself in 1589 CE. The Mughal conquered Kashmir and added it in 1586 to his Afghan province Kabul Subah , but Shah Jahan carved it out as a separate subah (imperial top-level province), with seat at Srinagar. During successive Mughal emperors many celebrated gardens, mosques and palaces were constructed. Religious intolerance and discriminatory taxation reappeared when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb ascended to the throne in 1658 CE. After his death, the influence of the Mughal Empire declined.