The first Roman emperor , Augustus , framed his ascent to sole power as a return to traditional morality , and attempted to regulate the conduct of women through moral legislation . Adultery , which had been a private family matter under the Republic, was criminalized,  and defined broadly as an illicit sex act ( stuprum ) that occurred between a male citizen and a married woman, or between a married woman and any man other than her husband. Therefore a married woman could have sex only with her husband, but a married man did not commit adultery when he had sex with a prostitute , slave , or person of marginalized status ( infamis ) .  Most prostitutes in ancient Rome were slaves, though some slaves were protected from forced prostitution by a clause in their sales contract.  A free woman who worked as a prostitute or entertainer lost her social standing and became infamis , "disreputable"; by making her body publicly available, she had in effect surrendered her right to be protected from sexual abuse or physical violence. 
Clinical trials provide a critical base of evidence for evaluating whether a medical product is effective before the product is approved for marketing. Women’s participation in clinical trials has improved in many areas, but we need to continue this momentum. The FDA Office of Women’s Health (OWH) was established by congressional mandate to advocate for the participation of women in clinical trials and the analyses of data by sex. OWH supports studies to track the participation of women in clinical trials and collaborates with FDA's centers and external partners to conduct trainings, workshops, outreach, and research to improve clinical trials design, recruitment, and analyses and to support FDA regulatory policy and decision-making.